Composite week sampling designs have already been utilized in past analysis that is content to have representative examples of tv development (Kunkel et al., 1999, 2001, 2003; Madden & Grube, 1994; Wallack, Grube, Madden, & Breed, 1990; Wilson et al., 1997). This sampling strategy involves arbitrarily selecting days of the week or specific time slots for recording over many weeks to lessen possible bias that would be introduced if all taping were done within a solitary calendar week. Recording of this test happened mainly over a period that is 7-week the autumn every year. Because season premiere episodes are staggered through the entire month of September, we began taping when all nonsyndicated show had been showing episodes through the season that is current. Each three different days of the week were randomly selected for taping from all 11 stations, with all seven days of the week represented three times in the sample week. The 8-hour time block for taping extended from 3:00 p.m. (of which time youth that is most are away from college) to 11:00 p.m. (through prime- time). The entire process of recapturing missed episodes (like those which is why the satellite sign had been lost or the show was pre-empted by displaying or other events that are special proceeded through the entire winter season.
Not absolutely all product that has been taped had been coded.
As our focus ended up being on scripted programming, we excluded news that is daily, game shows, sports programs and activities, and paid development, along with all types of commercials along with other promotions ( ag e.g., teasers for community programs). Although music videos had been taped, these were coded and analyzed individually because of their unique traits and they are maybe perhaps not reported right here. The analyses introduced in this paper, but, do are the nonmusic video clip programming from cable music activity channels including talk programs, variety/comedy shows, and reality shows. In addition, suggests that had been incomplete since they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. weren’t coded. Finally, episode repeats had been eradicated through the sample.
The sample that is final the 2001-2002 period contained 1,276 unique system episodes, whereas the last test for the 2002-2003 period included 1,439 unique system episodes. The test for the second content analysis had been notably bigger than the very first 12 months’s test that we had three episodes of each nonsyndicated series as we made a concerted effort in year 2 to ensure. Despite strict adherence towards the sampling plan, extra taping ended up being needed whenever, as an example, brand brand brand new programs entered the fall lineup www.xxxstreams,com following the start of year to replace for cancelled shows or as soon as the time and time slot for a set had been changed.
The codebook for the bigger research had been based significantly regarding the factors produced by Kunkel and colleagues (1999, 2001, 2003) inside their content analyses conducted when it comes to Kaiser Family Foundation. We created extra products, including those on same-sex intimate behavior and sexual talk associated with nonheterosexuals. As opposed to Kunkel and peers, whom used the scene whilst the main device of analysis, our content analyses involved coding for intimate content in 2-minute periods of system time. Because scenes vary quite a bit in total and, therefore, usually do not offer a consistent product of measure in making evaluations across programs, we utilized a standard coding device centered on time. Coding news development in designated time periods has been utilized usually by other scientists conducting content analyses across different system genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers-Flanagan, Sommers-Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).
For purposes of the content analysis, intercourse ended up being thought as any depiction of sexual intercourse, intimately suggestive behavior, or any speak about sex or activity that is sexual. To be conservative and prevent overcoding content that is sexual messages about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual communications linked to relationship and relationships, that have been maybe maybe not coded. As an example, a statement such as вЂњI favor my boyfriendвЂќ wouldn’t be coded whereas a declaration such as вЂњI made want to my boyfriendвЂќ will be coded.